Dhanapāla’s Satyapurīya-śrīmahāvīra-utsāhaḥ

Dhanapāla, the Sanskrit and Prakrit poet associated with the Paramara kings, is known to have written a few Apabhramsha works as well. One of them, the Satyapurīya-śrīmahāvīra-utsāhaḥ (in Apabhramsha: Saccaüri-vīra-ucchāhu), is cited somewhat frequently in secondary literature—not because of any great scholarly interest in the image of Vardhamāna that once stood at Sanchore in Rajasthan, but because it is one of the very few texts (maybe the only one?) to refer to the campaigns of Mahmud of Ghazni written by someone who was alive at the time (unlike, say, Jinaprabha Sūri) and who was not attached to Mahmud’s court (unlike, say, Garzidi). The work was edited from a single manuscript in Patan by the industrious Jinavijaya Muni and published in the third issue of the third volume of Jaina Sāhitya Saṁśōdhaka in 1927. The entire issue can be download from Jain e-Library. Since I have never seen any verses actually quoted and translated from this text, I will do so here.

The text is a hymn to Mahāvīra (Vardhamāna), whose image was installed at Satyapurī, modern Sanchore, in Rajasthan. It is called an utsāhaḥ, which is a specific type of metrical form and genre in Apabhramsha. Interestingly it differs from the utsāhaḥ that is defined by metrical authorities (Svayambhū, Hēmacandra, Rājaśēkhara, etc.), but that can be a topic for another day. The basic idea is that multiple rulers—but above all the turukka or Turks, led by Mahmud of Ghazni—attempted to take away or destroy the image, and failed. They succeeded, though, with other images. Here is verse 3:

bhañjēvi ṇu sirimāladēsu anu aṇahilavāḍaüṁ,
    caḍḍāvalli sōraṭṭhu bhaggu dēulavāḍaüṁ;
sōmēsaru sō tēhi bhaggu jaṇamaaāṇandaṇu,
    bhaggu na siri saccaüri-vīru siddhatthaha nandaṇu.

They destroyed the region of Bhinmal and Anhilwad,
Caḍḍāvalli, Saurashtra, and Dilwara, destroyed,
That Someshwar they destroyed, who brought joy to people’s hearts,
But they did not destroy Śrī Satyapurī-Vīra,
delight of those who have reached their aims.

And here is verse 4, which uses the word turukka:

bahuēhi vi tārāyaṇēhi ravipasaru kiṃ bhijjaï,
    bahuēhi vi visaharēhi milivi kiṁ guruḍu galijjaï;
bahu kuraṅga āruṭṭha karahi kiri kāi mayandaha,
    pūṇihi bahuya turukka kāi saccaüri-jiṇindaha.

Is the light of the sun destroyed constellations, however numerous they may be?
Is Garuḍa felled when he meets with serpents, however numerous they may be?
Do antelopes, however numerous they may be, menace the Lord of Beasts?
Can the Turks, however numerous they may be, touch the Jinēndra of Satyapurī?

I suggest reading pūsihi in the last line (pūsa- = “touch”), since pūṇihi doesn’t mean anything to me.

Since the raid on the Somanath Temple took place in 1024 CE, more than 50 years after Dhanapāla’s first available work (the Pāiyalacchī, a Prakrit dictionary from 972 CE), he was probably around 75 when he composed this hymn. I would guess that it was one of his “retirement projects,” after he completed his Tilakamañjarī for King Bhōja.