Dhanapāla’s Contradictions (16–18)

How are you the seventh of the renunciates (saṁyatas),
despite being the second of the ascetics (śramaṇas)?
    [How is it that you are the seed of the ascetics,
    the best among the renunciates?]

How are you, Lord, not the eighth in the world,
although you are greater than seven?
    [How is it, Lord,
    that you are the greatest in terms of spiritual power,
    and that you have destroyed delusion?]
[16]

samaṇāṇa vīabhūō vi sattamō saṁjayāṇa kaha ṇu tumaṁ
kaha nāha sattajiṭṭhō vi naṭṭhamō hōsi bhuvaṇammi [16]

समणाण वीभूओ वि सत्तमो संजयाण कह ण तुमं ।
कह नाह सत्तजिट्ठो वि नट्ठमो होसि भुवणम्मि ॥ १३ ॥

How is it that the form you take illuminates the ten directions,
even though it makes manifest twenty directions —
a form which is a cause, O Conqueror, of the greatest vision,
even though it is a disease of the eye?
    [How is it that you bear a form that illuminates the ten directions,
    and exhibit such confidence, which is nectar to the eyes,
     O Conqueror, and a cause of the greatest insight?]
[17]

kaha payaḍiyavīsāsaṁ pi vahasi rūvaṁ payāsiadasāsaṁ
jiṇa nayaṇāmayabhūaṁ pi kāraṇaṁ daṁsaṇavarassa [17]

कह पयडियवीसासं पि वहसि रूवं पयासिअदसासं ।
जिण नयणामयभूअं पि कारणं दंसणवरस्स ॥ १७ ॥

Lord of Sages! How is it that you give a large amount of joy,
which is ceasing, though unceasing, greatest in the three worlds,
yet not the greatest, indeterminate, yet determinate?
    [Lord of Sages! How is it that you give a large amount of joy
    that is unceasing, rich in restraint,
    which is the greatest in the three worlds, not to be found in anyone else,
    which is certain, and which we have not even asked for?]
[18]

avirāmaṁ pi jaïmayaṁ avariṭṭhaṁ tihuaṇassa vi variṭṭhaṁ
kaha nicchiaṁ pi muṇivaï aṇicchiaṁ dēsi suhanivahaṁ [18]

अविरामं पि जइमयं अवरिट्ठं तिहुअणस्स वि वरिट्ठं ।
कह निच्छिअं पि मुणिवइ अणिच्छिअं देसि सुहनिवहं ॥ १८ ॥

Tamil keyboard for X11

In preparing to read Iḷaṅkō Aṭikaḷ’s Cilappatikāram next semester, I wanted to find an easy solution for typing Tamil on Ubuntu. By ‘easy,’ I mean that I did not want to have an entirely new keyboard configuration (I am only getting used to the Kannada configuration now…). It turns out that there weren’t keyboards that mapping the phonetic values of the keys, e.g., the key “p” to the letter ப, and so on. Luckily, the X11 system makes it very easy to add new keyboard configurations. I opened up /usr/share/X11/xkb/symbols/in (the keyboard configuration file for “India”) and added a new configuration that I called “Tamil (Phonetic).” The configuration is below. After adding an entry to /usr/share/X11/xkb/rules/evdev.xml, the configuration was available to the X windows system, and I could choose it in Ubuntu’s input sources menu.

Here is the keyboard mapping:

It has the following features:

  • Generally it maps the English letter to the corresponding Tamil letter, hence t = த, s = ஸ, h = ஹ, j = ஜ, p = ப, m = ம, v = வ, n = ந, l = ல, k = க, and c = ச.
  • For the vowels, generally the key is the combining form of the short vowel (hence i = ி), and SHIFT + the key is the combining form of the long vowel (hence I = ீ).
  • The independent form of the vowels is obtained with the ALT key (the right alt switch key). Hence ALT + i = இ, ALT + SHIFT + i = ஈ.
  • This means that the key i is used for long and short i, in combining and independent forms. Likewise for u, e, and o.
  • a = combining long a (ா), SHIFT + a is independent long a (ஆ), and ALT + a (with or without shift) is independent short a (அ).
  • The halant on the Hindi keyboard that I use is mapped onto f, and since f isn’t used for anything in Tamil, I have also mapped the Tamil puḷḷi onto this letter.
  • SHIFT + t is the retroflex stop (ட).
  • SHIFT + k is the velar nasal (ங); SHIFT + c is the palatal nasal (ஞ); SHIFT + n is the retroflex nasal (ண). For the alveolar nasal (ன) I use ALT + n.
  • SHIFT + l is the retroflex lateral (ள), and ALT + l is the alveolar liquid (ழ).
partial alphanumeric_keys
xkb_symbols "tam_phonetic" {
    name[Group1]= "Tamil (Phonetic)";
    key.type="FOUR_LEVEL";

    // Number row
    key  { [ apostrophe, asciitilde ] };
    key  { [ 1, U0BE7 ] };
    key  { [ 2, U0BE8 ] };
    key  { [ 3, U0BE9 ] };
    key  { [ 4, U0BEA ] };
    key  { [ 5, U0BEB ] };
    key  { [ 6, U0BEC ] };
    key  { [ 7, U0BED ] };
    key  { [ 8, U0BEE ] };
    key  { [ 9, U0BEF, parenleft, parenleft ] };
    key  { [ 10, U0BF0, parenright, parenright ] };
    key  { [ minus, U0BF1, minus ] };
    key  { [ plus, U0BF2 ] };

    // Q Row
    key  { [ U0BCC, U0B94 ] }; // w = au, °au
    key  { [ U0BC6, U0BC7, U0B8E, U0B8F ] }; // e = e, ē, °e, °ē
    key  { [ U0BB0, U0BB1 ] }; // r = r, ṟ 
    key  { [ U0BA4, U0B9F ] }; // t = t, ṭ
    key  { [ U0BAF, U0BC8, U0BC8, U0B90 ] }; // y = y, ai, ai, °ai
    key  { [ U0BC1, U0BC2, U0B89, U0B8A ] }; // u = u, u, °u, °ū
    key  { [ U0BBF, U0BC0, U0B87, U0B88 ] }; // i = i, ī, °i, °ī
    key  { [ U0BCA, U0BCB, U0B92, U0B93 ] }; // o = o, ō, °o, °ō
    key  { [ U0BAA ] }; // p = p
    key  { [ bracketleft, braceleft ] }; 
    key  { [ bracketright, braceright ] };

    //A Row
    key  { [ U0BBE, U0B86, U0B85, U0B85 ] }; // a = ā, °ā, °a, °a
    key  { [ U0BB8, U0BB6, U0BB7, U0BB7 ] }; // s = s, ś, ṣ
    // I am used to f being the halant on the Hindi keyboard, so I put it here.
    key  { [ U0BCD ] }; // f = pulli
    key  { [ U0BB9, U0B83 ] }; // h = h, ḥ
    key  { [ U0B9C ] }; // j = j
    key  { [ U0B95, U0B99 ] }; // k = k, ṅ
    key  { [ U0BB2, U0BB3, U0BB4, U0BB4 ] }; // l = l, ḷ, ḻ
    key  { [ semicolon, colon ] } ; 
    key  { [ apostrophe, quotedbl ] };
    key  { [ U005C, U007C ] };//backslash-bar - Changed to Unicode

   // Z ROW
    key  { [ U0B82 ] }; // x = anusvāra
    key  { [ U0B9A, U0B9E ] }; // c = c, ñ
    key  { [ U0BB5 ] }; // v 
    key  { [ U0BA8, U0BA3, U0BA9, U0BA9 ] }; // n = n, ṇ, ṉ
    key  { [ U0BAE ] }; // m = m, 
    key  { [ comma, less ] }; // , =
    key  { [ period, greater, U0964, U0964 ] }; // . = ., ।
    key  { [ slash, question ] }; // / = ?

    include "level3(ralt_switch)"
};

Dhanapāla’s Contradictions (vv. 13–15)

How is it that you, ascending to existence
in the Saudharma and Sanatkumāra heavens, exist in the world,
without having discarded the conduct
of the Īśāna, Lāntava, and Araṇā heavens?
    [How is it that you, ascending to a tender beauty in boyhood,
    you who put an end to jealousy, have never deviated
    from proper conduct in the world?]
[13]

kahaṁ taṁ samāruhaṁtō sōhammasaṇaṁkumārabhāvammi
īsāṇalaṁtaāraṇaaccuasīlō jaē hōsi [13]

कहं तं समारुहंतो सोहम्मसणंकुमारभावम्मि ।
ईसाणलंतआरणअच्चुअसीलो जए होसि ॥ १३ ॥

There are a number of heavens (suralōka-) described in Jain doctrinal texts. Among these, Saudharma and Sanatkumāra are the first and third; Īśāna is the second; Lāntava is the sixth; and Araṇā is the eleventh.

How is it that you illuminate the worlds,
lamp of the universe, while you yourself are extinguished?
    [How is it that you have obtained liberation,
    lamp of the universe, and illuminate the worlds?]

How is it that you are without illumination,
despite illuminating all of the worlds?
    [How is it that you are without exertion,
    despite illuminating all of the worlds?]
[14]

nivvāṇagaō vi jagappaīva bhuvaṇāiṁ kaha payāsēsi
sayalabhuvaṇappayāsō vi appayāsō kahaṁ hōsi [14]

निव्वाणगओ वि जगप्पईव भुवणाइं कह पयासेसि ।
सयलभुवणप्पयासो वि अप्पयासो कहं होसि ॥ १४ ॥

Lord, in providing for the endless rebirth of beings who possess moral failings,
how it is that you immediately give the pleasure
of attainment to those who deviate from the dharma?
    [Lord, in giving endless rebirth to beings who are in Āsvādana,
    the second guṇasthāna, how is it that you immediately give
    the pleasure of attainment to those who have realized the dharma?]
[15]

sāsāyaṇāṇa jantūṇaṁ sāmi dintō aṇantasaṁsāraṁ
āsāiadhammāṇaṁ aïrā kaha dēsi siddhisuhaṁ [15]

सासायणाण जंतूणं सामि दिंतो अणंतसंसारं ।
आसाइअधम्माणं अइरा कह देसि सिद्धिसुहं ॥ १५ ॥

The second guṇasthāna-, here called sāsāyaṇa-, is deviation from the right faith.

Dhanapāla’s Contradictions (vv. 11–12)

You do not put an end to darkness,
nor do you put an end to the moth capriciously.
Nor is your wick always covered in lamp-black.
How are, then, can you be the lamp of the world?
    [You neither do what is right, nor what is wrong.
    Nor do you do anything praiseworthy if it happens to be useless.
    You are always absorbed in what you have to do.
    How could you not be the lamp of the world?]
[11]

saṁtamasaṁtaṁ na karēsi nipphalaṁ na ya vihēsi salahaṁtaṁ
niccaṁ sakajjalaggō na hōsi kaha taṁ jagapaīvō [11]

संतमसंतं न करेसि निप्फलं न य विहेसि सलहंतं ।
निच्चं सकज्जलग्गो न होसि कह तं जगपईवो ॥ ११ ॥

How is it that your conduct is so hard to maintain,
even though it involves just a single form of knowledge?
    [How is it that your conduct, which leads to the singular knowledge,
    is so hard to maintain?]

How is it that your virtues are devoid of conduct,
yet you yourself are have good conduct?
    [How is it that you, of good conduct,
    have virtues that are always full?]
[12]

kēvalanāṇuvvahaṇō vi duvvahaṁ kaha carittam uvvahasi
saccārittō vi kahaṁ niccārittē guṇē dharasi [12]

केवलणाणुव्वहणो वि दुव्वहं कह चरित्तं उव्वहसि ।
सच्चारिित्तो वि कहं निच्चारिते गुणे धरसि ॥ १२ ॥

Dhanapāla’s Contradictions (vv. 9–10)

Conqueror! How is it that the fame that attaches to you
is variegated, yet black as sin, white, yet multicolored,
with a dark hue in every respect, yet said to be white?
    [Conqueror! How is it that your fame
    reveals sin like a touchstone, takes many forms,
    is essential, is excellent, is known for its perspectivism,
    and has a color that is as white as Śiva’s laughter?]
[9]

pāvakasaṇaṁ pi cittaṁ sāraṁ pi dharēsi kaha jasaṁ sēaṁ
jiṇa siavāyakkhāyaṁ pi savvahā sāmalacchāyaṁ [9]

पावकसणं पि चित्तं सारं पि धरेसि कह जसं सेअं ।
जिण सिअवायक्खायं पि सव्वहा सामलच्छायं ॥ ९ ॥

Perspectivism (siavāya- or syādvāda-) is one of the central philosophical teachings of Jainism.

Although they do what they need to do, there is nothing they need to do.
Although they are free of rajas and tamas, they are not free of rajas and tamas.
Although they are constant in calmness, they are not calm.
How is it that you do this to the people who serve you?
    [Because they have done what they needed to, there is nothing left for them to do.
    And because they are free of rajas and tamas, they are free from the darkness of hell as well.
    They are constant in calmness.
    How is it that you make the people who serve you just like you?]
[10]

kiyakiccaṁ pi akiccaṁ rayatamamukkaṁ pi na rayatamamukkaṁ
thirapasamaṁ pi jaṇaṁ kaha appasamaṁ kuṇasi kayasēvaṁ [10]

कियकिच्चं पि अकिच्चं रयतममुक्कं पि न रयतममुक्कं ।
थिरपसमं पि जणं कह अप्पसमं कुणसि कयसेवं ॥ १० ॥

Rajas and tamas are psychophysical elements, generally associated with the Sāṁkhya philosophy but adopted by Jainism, which are typically negative, associated with darkness and dullness.

कश्चिद्भर्तृहरेर्वैराग्यश्लोकः

खलोल्लापाः सोढाः कथमपि तदाराधनपरै-
    र्निगृह्यान्तर्बाष्पं हसितमपि शून्येन मनसा ।
कृतो वित्तस्तम्भप्रतिहतधियामञ्जलिरपि
    त्वमाशे मोघाशे किमपरमतो नर्तयसि माम् ॥

khalōllāpāḥ sōḍhāḥ kathamapi tadārādhanaparair
    nigr̥hyāntar bāṣpaṁ hasitam api śūnyēna manasā ~
kr̥tō vittastambhapratihatadhiyām añjalir api
    tvam āśē mōghāśē kim aparam atō nartayasi mām ~~

When degenerates ran their mouths,
and I still needed their good will,
I put up with it, somehow.
I kept it all inside, and even smiled,
though it took everything out of me.
These people have corrupted their minds
just by holding on tight to what they already have,
and I still showed them respect.
It’s you, hope, false hope,
that made me dance around like this.
What’s the next number?

This is from the Vairāgyaśatakam of Bhartr̥hari. I used D.D. Kosambi’s critical edition (v. 150). In the śikhariṇī meter.

Dhanapāla’s Contradictions (vv. 6–8)

Advanced in years, though free from old age.
Pleasure to the eyes, though causing pain.
Nine cubits in height, though seven cubits tall.
How is it that you bear such a body?
    [How can you bear such a body,
    in which your vows are well advanced, which is free from old age,
    which has pacified all trouble, which is pleasure to the eyes,
    which is seven cubits tall, and which is not to be killed?]
[6]

pariṇayavayaṁ jarāvajjiyaṁ pi saṁtāvayaṁ pi nayaṇasuhaṁ
kaha sattahatthamāṇaṁ pi vahasi navahattham appāṇaṁ [6]

परिणयवयं जरावज्जियं पि संतावयं पि नयणसुहं ।
कह सत्तहत्थमाणं पि वहसि नवहत्थमप्पाणं ॥ ६ ॥

How is it they speak of you great, yet devoid of greatness,
a winter festival, yet a springtime festival for the eyes,
and the first guṇasthāna, yet also the twelfth guṇasthāna?
    [How is it that they speak of you as great, devoid of the three weights,
    with cool splendor, a great festival for the eyes,
    the primary abode of virtues, and free from delusion.]
[7]

gayagāravaṁ pi guruaṁ nayaṇāṇa mahūsavaṁ pi sisiramahaṁ
taṁ biṁti khīṇamōhaṁ pi kaha ṇu paḍhamaṁ guṇaṭṭhāṇaṁ [7]

गयगारवं पि गुरुअं नयणाण महूसवं पि सिसिरमहं ।
तं बिंति खीणमोहं पि कह णु पढमं गुणट्ठाणं ॥ ७ ॥

According to Kāpaḍiyā’s note, the three weights are desire for pleasure, power, and enjoyment (sukha-samr̥ddhi-rasa-tr̥ṣṇā). The first guṇasthāna- or “spiritual stage” in Jainism is called mithyādr̥ṣṭi-, “false views.” The twelfth, named here, is kṣīṇamōha-, “from which delusion has disappeared.” In the resolution, guṇasthāna- and kṣīṇamōha- both have their literal meanings (“abode of virtue,” and “free from delusion”).

How is it that you do not possess a bow, though you are the greatest bowman,
that you have no bowstring, yet are rich in bowstrings,
you are not a friend to the world, yet are a friend without self-interest?
    [How is it that you destroy the false path, you bear the most excellent dharma,
    you are free from pride, you are an ocean of virtue,
    you are a friend without self-interest, and an ornament of the world?]
[8]

varadhammadharō vi amaggaṇāsaṇō guṇanihī vi gayagavvō
kaha nikkāraṇamittō vi hōsi bhuvaṇassa avayaṁsō [8]

वरधम्मधरो वि अमग्गणासणो गुणनिही वि गयगव्वो ।
कह निक्कारणमित्तो वि होसि भुवणस्स अवयंसो ॥ ८ ॥

Kapadia notes that gavva can mean jyā, “bowstring.” I have not seen this elsewhere.

Dhanapāla’s Contradictions (vv. 4–5)

How is it that, despite being the jewel of masth produced by a royal elephant,
you don’t fetch even the price of a pearl?
    [How is it that you merit being done reverence to,
    the crown-jewel of those who have no desire?]

How is it, Lord, that despite being the abode of abundant jewels,
you bear only three jewels?
    [How is it, Lord, that you bear the three jewels,
    destroying the abundant dust of accumulated karma?]
[4]

arihasi na muttiagghaṁ kaha taṁ gayarāyamatthayamaṇī vi
kaha pahu pahūarayaṇāsaō vi rayaṇattayaṁ vahasi [4]

अरिहसि न मुत्तिअग्घं कह तं गयरायमत्थयमणी ।
कह पहु पहूअरयणासओ वि रयणत्तयं वहसि ॥ ४ ॥

The three jewels are right worldview, right knowledge, and right conduct (darśanajñānacaritra-).

How is it that, despite being a young elephant,
you are a cub among the lions that are Śramaṇas in this ocean of existence?
    [How is it that, besides being a ship for the lions that are Śramaṇas
    in this ocean of existence, you are also free from contention?]

How is it, glorious one, that despite being a lion,
you give happiness to female elephants?
    [How is it, glorious one, that you give happiness to those who want what is right,
    and are an enemy of evil besides?]
[5]

kaha gayakalahō vi bhavōahimmi pōōsi samaṇasīhāṇaṁ
ēṇārī vi mahāyasa kaha dēsi suhaṁ suhatthīṇaṁ [5]

कह गयहलहो वि भवोअम्मि पोओसि समणसीहाणं ।
एणारी वि महायस कह देसि सुहं सुहत्थीणं ॥ ५ ॥

Dhanapāla’s Contradictions (continued)

Continuing with the text that I introduced earlier, here are verses 2 and 3. As with all of the verses of Dhanapāla’s hymn to Mahāvīra, they contain an apparent contradiction that is resolved by reading the Prakrit text differently.

How is it that, despite having destroyed the four passions,
you do not destroy the passions?
    [How is it that you destroy the nine minor passions,
    after having destroyed the four major ones?]

How is it, Teacher of the World, despite the loss of your name and gōtra,
you are known throughout the world?
    [How is it that you are known througout the world,
    having destroyed your nāma-karmas and gōtra-karmas?]
[2]

khaviakasāyacaükkō vi nōkasāyakkhayaṁ kaha karēsi
kaha naṭṭhanāmaguttō jayaguru jayapāyaḍō hōsi [2]

खविअकसायचउक्को वि नोकसायक्खयं कह करेसि ।
कह नट्ठनामगुत्तो जयगुरु जयपायडो होसि ॥ २ ॥

The four kaṣāyas are krōdha- ‘anger,’ māna- ‘pride,’ māyā ‘delusion,’ and lōbha- ‘greed.’ The nine kaṣāyas are hāsya- ‘frivolity,’ rati- ‘attachment,’ arati- ‘boredom,’ śōka- ‘grief,’ bhaya- ‘fear,’ jugupsā- ‘disgust,’ puruṣavēda- ‘male sexuality,’ strīvēda- ‘female sexuality,’ napuṁsakavēda- ‘“other” sexuality.’ Nāma- and gōtra- are types of karma that determine the body and social position into which one is born.

How is it that, despite being born into a family of serpents,
you do not ask for sweet milk?
    [How is it that, despite being born into the Jñāta family,
    you do not seek the wealth of the gods?]

How is it that, despite being addicted to delusion and sleep,
you maintain eternal wisdom?
    [How is it that, being a destroyer of delusion,
    you maintain eternal wisdow?]
[3]

kaha nāyakuluppannō vi nāha surasaṁ payaṁ na patthēsi
uvvahasi mōhaniddāraō vi kaha sāsayaṁ bōhaṁ [3]

कह नायकुलुप्पन्नो वि नाह सुरसं पयं न पत्थेसि ।
उव्वहसि मोहनिद्दारओ वि कह सासयं बोहं ॥ ३ ॥

In India, as in much of the rest of the world, there is a myth that snakes drink milk. (They don’t.)

Dhanapāla’s Contradictions

I happened upon a very useful book by Hiralal Rasikdas Kapadia (Kavīśvara Śrīdhanapāla Viracita R̥ṣabhapaṁcāśikā ane Vīrastutiyugalarūpa Kr̥tikalāpa, Bombay 1989) which contains three works of the poet Dhanapāla. One of them is a hymn to Vardhamāna in Prakrit (Śrīvīrastutiḥ) which utilizes the ornament of virōdhābhāsaḥ or “apparent contradiction.” It begins as follows:

Having praised the lotus-feet of the Jinas,
which have pure nails, but which are without nails —
    which are sinless —
I now praise the Hero, whose words are uncontradicted,
with words that are contradictory.

nimmalanahē vi aṇahē jiṇāṇa calaṇuppalē paṇamiūṇa
vīram aviruddhavayaṇaṁ thuṇāmi saviruddhavayaṇam ahaṁ

निम्मलनहे वि अणहे जिणाण चलणुप्पले पणमिऊण ।
वीरमविरुद्धवयणं थुणामि सविरुद्धवयणमहं ॥

The first verse thus instantiates the ornament that will appear in every subsequent verse. At first, one reads nimmalanahē vi aṇahē and thinks, how can his feet have pure toenails, and yet be described as “without toenails” (aṇahē)? But the solution here is to read aṇahē as “sinless” (Sanskrit anagha-).

The last verse makes it very clear that the text is by Dhanapāla, as it contains his “signature” in a way that we recognize from the poet’s other works:

O protector! The source of all glory! Skilled protector of the people of the three worlds! Constantly impartial! Become the object of my words of praise.

ia sayalasirinibaṁdhaṇa pālaya paccala tilōalōassa
bhava majjha sayā majjhattha gōarē saṁthuigirāṇaṁ

इअ सयलसिरिनिबंधण पालय पच्चल तिलोअलोअस्स ।
भव मज्झ सया मज्झत्थ गोअरे संथुइगिराणं ॥